Carriage and Stroller Definitions:
“Carriages” and “strollers” are both types of wheeled vehicles generally used to transport infants and toddlers up to 36 months of age. While carriages transport the occupant in a lying down position, strollers do so with the occupant in a sitting-up or semi-reclined position. Thus, the principal difference between strollers and carriages is the position of the occupant.
Both carriages and strollers may be capable of being folded for storage. Strollers that fold in two dimensions, the height and length, are called “2D” strollers, while those that collapse in all three dimensions - height, length and width - resulting in a smaller folded package than 2D strollers, are called “3D” strollers.
Other types of strollers include travel systems that accommodate an infant car seat on a stroller, and strollers intended to be used at a jogging rate. Convertible carriages and strollers are intended to be converted by the owner to be used as a carriage or a stroller. Some strollers incorporate automatic or assisted folding and unfolding mechanisms.
Hazards Associated with Carriages and Strollers:
The hazards associated with carriages and strollers include problems with wheels, parking brakes, lock mechanisms, restraints, hinges, structural integrity, stability / tip-over, clearance, car seat attachment, canopies, handlebars, seats, sharp points and edges, trays, and miscellaneous others. These design issues have caused injuries ranging from pinching and lacerations through to amputations and deaths.
Legal Background and Compliance Enforcement:
All the carriages and strollers detailed above fall within the scope of the ASTM F833-13b standard, which will become effective on September 10, 2015. Meanwhile, manufacturers must also comply with federal rule 16 CFR part 1107 (Testing and Labeling Pertaining to Product Certification) and 16 CFR part 1112 (Requirements Pertaining to Third Party Conformity Assessment Bodies).
Under 16 CFR part 1107, manufacturers of infant carriages and strollers are required to certify, based on third party testing conducted by CPSC-accredited laboratories, that products comply with all applicable safety rules. According to 16 CFR part 1112, the CPSC has published a notice of requirements (NOR) for the accreditation of third party conformity assessment bodies for soft infant and toddler carriers.
The name and country location of third-party laboratories meeting 16 CFR part 1112 can be searched at www.cpsc.gov/labsearch