Buyer Community> Trade Intelligence> Country Profiles-Estonia> Estonia-Geography


Published: 04 Nov 2008 11:59:16 PST
Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Finland, between Latvia and Russia
Geographic coordinates:   
59 00 N, 26 00 E
Map references:   
total: 45,228 sq km
country comparison to the world: 132
land: 42,388 sq km
water: 2,840 sq km
note: includes 1,520 islands in the Baltic Sea
Area - comparative:   
slightly smaller than New Hampshire and Vermont combined
Land boundaries:   
total: 633 km
border countries: Latvia 343 km, Russia 290 km
3,794 km
Maritime claims:   
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: limits fixed in coordination with neighboring states
Current Weather
maritime; wet, moderate winters, cool summers
marshy, lowlands; flat in the north, hilly in the south
Elevation extremes:   
lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
highest point: Suur Munamagi 318 m
Natural resources:   
oil shale, peat, phosphorite, clay, limestone, sand, dolomite, arable land, sea mud
Land use:   
arable land: 12.05%
permanent crops: 0.35%
other: 87.6% (2005)
Irrigated land:   
40 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:   
21.1 cu km (2005)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):   
total: 1.41 cu km/yr (56%/39%/5%)
per capita: 1,060 cu m/yr (2002)
Natural hazards:   
sometimes flooding occurs in the spring
Environment - current issues:   
air polluted with sulfur dioxide from oil-shale burning power plants in northeast; however, the amount of pollutants emitted to the air have fallen steadily, the emissions of 2000 were 80% less than in 1980; the amount of unpurified wastewater discharged to water bodies in 2000 was one-20th the level of 1980; in connection with the start-up of new water purification plants, the pollution load of wastewater decreased; Estonia has more than 1,400 natural and manmade lakes, the smaller of which in agricultural areas need to be monitored; coastal seawater is polluted in certain locations
Environment - international agreements:   
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:   
the mainland terrain is flat, boggy, and partly wooded; offshore lie more than 1,500 islands
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