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Azerbaijan-Geography

Published: 04 Nov 2008 11:40:54 PST
Location:   
Southwestern Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and Russia, with a small European portion north of the Caucasus range
 
Geographic coordinates:   
40 30 N, 47 30 E
 
Map references:   
Middle East 
 
Area:   
total: 86,600 sq km
country comparison to the world: 112
land: 82,629 sq km
water: 3,971 sq km
note: includes the exclave of Naxcivan Autonomous Republic and the Nagorno-Karabakh region; the region's autonomy was abolished by Azerbaijani Supreme Soviet on 26 November 1991
 
Area - comparative:   
slightly smaller than Maine
 
Land boundaries:   
total: 2,013 km
border countries: Armenia (with Azerbaijan-proper) 566 km, Armenia (with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave) 221 km, Georgia 322 km, Iran (with Azerbaijan-proper) 432 km, Iran (with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave) 179 km, Russia 284 km, Turkey 9 km
 
Coastline:   
0 km (landlocked); note - Azerbaijan borders the Caspian Sea (713 km)
 
Maritime claims:   
none (landlocked)
 
Climate:   
Current Weather
dry, semiarid steppe
 
Terrain:   
large, flat Kur-Araz Ovaligi (Kura-Araks Lowland) (much of it below sea level) with Great Caucasus Mountains to the north, Qarabag Yaylasi (Karabakh Upland) in west; Baku lies on Abseron Yasaqligi (Apsheron Peninsula) that juts into Caspian Sea
 
Elevation extremes:   
lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m
highest point: Bazarduzu Dagi 4,485 m
 
Natural resources:   
petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, nonferrous metals, bauxite
 
Land use:   
arable land: 20.62%
permanent crops: 2.61%
other: 76.77% (2005)
 
Irrigated land:   
14,550 sq km (2003)
 
Total renewable water resources:   
30.3 cu km (1997)
 
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):   
total: 17.25 cu km/yr (5%/28%/68%)
per capita: 2,051 cu m/yr (2000)
 
Natural hazards:   
droughts
 
Environment - current issues:   
local scientists consider the Abseron Yasaqligi (Apsheron Peninsula) (including Baku and Sumqayit) and the Caspian Sea to be the ecologically most devastated area in the world because of severe air, soil, and water pollution; soil pollution results from oil spills, from the use of DDT pesticide, and from toxic defoliants used in the production of cotton
 
Environment - international agreements:   
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
 
Geography - note:   
both the main area of the country and the Naxcivan exclave are landlocked
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